S s In the Articulation of Discourse by Advanced Iraqi Learners




НазваниеS s In the Articulation of Discourse by Advanced Iraqi Learners
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5.1 Conclusions

These conclusions are the outcome of the present study:

1-Time subordinators that are used to produce finite clauses as listed by Quirk et al (1972,1985) are seventeen in number: after, as , as long as , as soon as, before , directly , immediately, now(that), once, since, so long as, till, until, when, whenever, while, whilst. After making a survey for two books of intonation in English : A Course in Spoken English : Intonation to M.A.K. Halliday (1970) and Intonation of Colloquial English to J.D.O'Connor and G.F. Arnold (1973), it seems that in accordance with these two books there is no existence to the four subordinators : 'directly', 'immediately', 'so long as', and '(now) that ' in the usage of native speakers of English. The most frequently used among the rest thirteen subordinators are the ten that were used in the test of this study : after , as, as long as, as soon as, before, since, till, until, when, and while.


2- Knowledge of the syntax of subordinate structures helps in

defining their intonation:

a-Defining the structure of the sentence, whether it consists of two clauses: main and subordinate leads to the determination of what kind of tone to be used with each clause.

b-Determining the type of sentences is a very important factor in assigning the right intonation, i.e. whether the structure is a statement, question (what kind of question ), command, call..etc.


c-Specifying the function of the structure, assists in indicating its tone, e.g. in time subordinate clauses, if the clause functions as clause final adjunct, it takes a compound tone either(53) or (13).


3- The most frequently tones that are used with time subordinate clauses are tones (4) and (3), which usually come in the sequences (4&1), (1&4), and (3&1).


4-The intonations of English subordinate structures of time is treated as an afterthought by advanced Iraqi learners of English.They firstly think of meaning ,then of grammar then(if they do) of intonation.


5-The intonational patterns that are used quite often in the pronunciation of advanced Iraqi learners are :(1), (1&1), (2), (2&2), (2&1), (1&2), (L), (L&L).This could be attributed to the fact that these tones or sequences of tones are by their nature much easier to pronounce than others ;concerning tones(1) and(2) each one contains just a one pitch movement either falling or rising. According to the level tone(s) there is certainly no pitch movement at all.


6-Whenever tones (4) and (5) are found, the students face difficulties in pronunciation whether these tones come as single tones (4) and (5) or in a sequence like ( 4&1), (5&1) and (4&5), or compound as (53). This could be ascribed to the nature of these tones that each one consists of two pitch movements: falling then rising or rising then falling. And concerning tone (53) is considered the most difficult one because it is a combination of two tones the first of them consists of two pitch movements and the second consists of one pitch movement, so the total is three pitch movements and two tonic syllables.


7-Generally speaking, females are more aware than males in pronouncing subordinate structures of time. This may be traced back to social and economic reasons.


8-Some of the students ,not rightly, depend completely on meaning in knowing the tone used to pronounce the structure.


9-The students are conscious of the fact that tone (2) is used with questions, but they are ignorant of the fact that different types of question require different intonational patterns, e.g. wh-questions take tone ( 1 ) and yes/no – questions take tone (2 ) ..etc.


10-Great number of the participants were indifferent. They were very far away from intonational requirements. That’s why the level tone(s) appeared very often in their pronunciation.


11-Iraqi learners also face difficulties in tonality, i.e. the right placement of tone group boundary, which may be imputed to hesitation.


12-It may be mentioned that some of the commonest mistakes of intonation made by Iraqi learners are accompanied by mistakes of stress which consequently lead to mistakes in placing the tonic syllable within the tone group (i.e. tonicity).


5.2 Recommendations

The following points are recommended to improve the performance of the Iraqi learners:

1-The students must value the significance of intonation as the most essential feature in phonetics and phonology not only as aesthetic one. This may lead to avoid the indifferent pronunciation of the students and consequently avoiding the so many uses of level tones.


2-In addition to concentration on performance skills ,e.g. how intonation patterns should sound .One should not forget about competence side, i.e. the system of rules for intonation or the theoretical knowledge of 'tones' which includes the principles that govern their use and representing intonation graphically.The learners need to acquire fully this system.


3-The learners should know how to equip themselves in order to obtain the most useful practical results from the theoretical knowledge. In this, the learners have the right to observe and imitate with sufficient accuracy the intonation they hear English people use.

A useful way is to imitate what they are interested in, e.g. songs or some sections of movies..etc.


4-The importance of training the ear in this respect cannot be exaggerated; systematic ear-training exercises for intonation are so valuable. By training themselves, when listening to others speaking, the students will be able to recognize whether the pitch of voice rises or falls during the pronunciation of a syllable or group of syllables.

A useful exercise for ear-training is to listen to the fundamental tones as they appear in isolated syllables and then combined in words, on a record. This helps one to isolate syllables. The next step is training to pronounce each of the fundamental tones on as simple syllable such as 'laa', until one is sure that he/she can so control the rise and fall of his/her own voice that it will do what ever one requires of it.

5-Now we come to teachers' role in making use of the theoretical knowledge that the learners acquire about intonation. Teachers should make use of production exercises where the students are asked to pronounce some chunks of information from English texts to practice the aspects studied theoretically about intonation.


6-It is important to train the students how to divide the utterance into tone groups ; this certainly would encourage them to avoid hesitation and stumbling while reading or speaking.


7-Depending completely on meaning in knowing the intonation is misleading because sometimes misunderstanding makes the students use incorrect patterns. Meaning alone is not enough, one should take in mind the grammatical structure.


8-The students must be trained to use correct English intonational patterns that correspond with certain grammatical structures that are essential in communication and writing such as subordination.


9-In teaching intonation, teachers have to focus more on tones that contain two pitch movements as well as the concentration on compound tones.


10-It is sometimes sufficient to correct the mistakes of stress in order to effect a simultaneous improvement in intonation.


11-Concerning training in classroom, much time has to be spent in the language laboratory which in its turn should be provided with adequate audio-visual aids and recent computer systems about intonation in its variant patterns.


5.3 Suggestions for Further Studies

There are many types of subordinate structures, as this thesis deals with the syntax and intonation of subordinate structures of time still several other types can be studied such as the syntax and intonation of subordinate structures of manner, place, concession, condition, ..etc.

One can also study the syntax and intonation of adjectival clauses or of nominal clauses ( or one type of them ,e.g. nominal ing-clauses, nominal to -invinitive clauses .. etc).


Fill in the following form with the required information. Please place a tick (√) before the item that accurately describes you.

Name :

Age :

Sex : Male( ) Female( )

Country :

Governorate :

Your Native Language :

Do you have any speech defects ?

Yes( ) No( )

Do you have any hearing defects ?

Yes( ) No( )

Have you ever been taught by a native speaker of English ?

Yes( ) No( )

Have you taken any further courses in English in addition to your normal university ones ?

Yes( ) No( )

Have you ever been to English – Speaking country ?

Yes( ) No( )

Did you stay behind a grade during your high – school learning?

If yes, how many years ?

Yes( ) No( ) Years( )

Did you stay behind a grade during your university learning ?

If yes, how many years ?

Yes( ) No( ) Years( )


The is the list of sentences read by the informants:



  1. When John went out, Mary stayed at home.

  2. He works on the principle that every thing's all right as long as there's no actual explosion.

  3. Well, while we're waiting, let's go and have a cup of tea.

  4. Since you're obviously very busy just now, shall I come back tomorrow?

  5. Before you jump to conclusion, for goodness sake, hear me out.

  6. Before you know where you are, they've got you to sign an agreement for it.

  7. As soon as I get to the office, the telephone starts ringing.

  8. Since they made this area smokeless, we've seen hills in the distance that we never knew were there before.

  9. "Who the hell's playing bagpipes'?" Demanded Lary as he swept in.

  10. No more use of the car for her till she'd passed her test.

  11. It's raining. Wait until it stops, then.

  12. After you're heard what happened, you'll change your mind, I think.

  13. But the summers now just don't compare with the ones we had when I was a child.

  14. Since they made this area smokeless, we've seen hills in the distance that we never knew were there before.

  15. Before you know where you are, they've got you to sign an agreement for it.

  16. It doesn't seem a pity not to go to the opera while we're in Milan.

  17. But the summers now just don't compare with the ones we had when I was a child.

  18. May I borrow this book for a while? Keep it as long as you like.

  19. It doesn't seem a pity not to go to the opera while we're in Milan.

  20. After you've heard what happened, you'll change your mind, I think.

  21. No more use of the car for her till she'd passed her test.

  22. "Who the hell's playing bagpipes'?" Demanded Lary as he swept in.

  23. May I borrow this book for a while? Keep it as long as you like.

  24. As soon as I get to the office, the telephone starts ringing.

  25. It's raining. Wait until it stops, then.



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الخلاصة


تبحث هذه الرسالة التراكيب الزمنية الثانوية في اللغة الانكليزية من ناحية البناء و التنغيم حيث تتناول هذه التراكيب كما ينطقها الدارسون العراقيون في المراحل المتقدمة و تكشف قدرتهم اللفظية على نطق صيغ معقدة التراكيب – كأشباه الجمل الزمنية الثانوية- بأنماط تنغيمية صحيحة كما تستعرض الأنماط غير الصحيحة.قد تم تخصيص خمسة فصول لأجل تحقيق أهداف الرسالة.


تمثل مقدمة الرسالة الفصل الأول الذي يتكون من بعض الفقرات التمهيدية:

كمشكلة الدراسة وفرضياتها وأهدافها ومداها وأهميتها والمنهجية المتبعة لانجازها.


يتناول الفصل الثاني البناء النحوي للثانوية (التابعيه)وبعض المفاهيم المهمة المتعلقة بها, كما يشرح الأنواع الرئيسية لأشباه الجمل الثانوية ويقوم بالتركيز على ما يخص الزمنية منها.

أما فصل الرسالة الثالث فيلقي الضوء بدايةً على التنغيم من وجهة نظر عدد من المختصين بالتنغيم و خاصةً (هالدي) الذي تم اعتماد نظامه للتنغيم الإنكليزي في هذه الدراسة بشكل مفصل لكونه النظام الذي يبين العلاقة بين التنغيم والنحو بصورة أوضح وصولاً إلى إظهار الأنماط التنغيمية لأشباه الجمل الثانوية .

يشمل الفصل الرابع الجانب العملي من الدراسة ويتألف من التجربة و النتائج وتحليلها.

وتختم الرسالة ببعض الاستنتاجات والتوصيات التي تمثل الفصل الأخير منها.


بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

((ومن آياته خلقُ السماوات والأرض واختلاف ألسنتكم وألوانكم إنَّ

في ذلك لآياتٍ للعالمين))

الروم(۲۲)


بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

((ورتّل القرآن ترتيلاً))

المزمل (٤)

صدق الله العظيم


رسالة تقدمت بها


إلى مجلس كلية الآداب في جامعة بغداد كجزء من متطلبات نيل شهادة

ماجستير آداب في علم اللغة


بإشراف


الأستاذ الدكتور


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